What types of DNS records are available?

According to intended purpose, there are different kinds of DNS entries:

"A" Records stand for a host entry, e.g., www. and refer to an IP address of a server, e.g., web server with IP 213.124.246.32

„AAAA“ stands for the same kind of entry like for "normal" "A" Records, nevertheless, this entry is planned for the use of addresses with IPv6 adresses.

"ALIAS/ANAME" Records have the same purpose as CNAME Records, but are technically differently constituted. The purpose is to assign the domain an IP over a hostname. E.g. they allow to map the root record in the domain to a target host name.

„CNAME“ is used for aliases to another host entry, you can create an alias, e.g., an alias for the entry alias.domain.at which referers to www.domain2.at.

„MX“ Record is to define one or several mail servers with priority for a domain (10, 20, 30 etc.). The lowest value stands for the first mail server to be used..

„NS“ is uses for specification of other name servers for e.g. a subdomain

„SRV“ SRV entries allow the definition to the availability of IP-based services offered under a domain and are required for the use of certain protocols and applications as for example SIP/VoIP or XMPP (Jabber, Instant Messaging).

„TXT“  Records contain freely eligible text. On some systems the content serves to encode management dates.